Plant health promoter
Harpin proteins are plant health promoters produced naturally by certain bacterial plant pathogens. When Harpin Protein (ProAct) is applied it causes a biochemical and physiological response which, in turn, activates both growth and stress defence. This leads to a healthier plant, which is characterised by tolerance to stress conditions, better growth and increased production. When Harpin Protein (ProAct) is sprayed on to the plant, it binds to the natural harpin receptors. These early warning receptors react as if Harpin Protein (ProAct) was a pathogen attacking the plant. This stimulates the plant to react in its defence and to speed up growth. Within minutes, the plant sends a signal throughout all plant tissues, which starts a sequence of biochemical and physiological reactions. These reactions activate both growth and stress defence pathways. Harpin Protein (ProAct) amplifies the natural growth processes, which result in increased nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, vigour and reproductive responses. The stresses caused by the environment, physiological shifts in plant growth and biological agents such as disease pathogens. Environmental stresses are drought, heat, hail, frost and flooding.
Award Winning Technology
Harpin Protein is one of the most researched compounds of the 20th Century, identified at Cornel University in the USA, spending over $180 million dollars on development. The technology made the front cover of The Science Magazine and has also won the EPA award for its breakthrough in Green Chemistry worldwide. The technology is used on millions of hectares on many different crops around the world with great success.
After the application of Harpin Protein (ProAct), the natural defence pathways within the plant are activated within minutes, which leads to the amplification within the plant to defend itself against plant diseases. The combination of the following activated pathways switch on the plant’s natural resistance to defend itself;
Increased Cell wall structures and nutrient mobilisation, together with the activated pathways and extra energy the plant has gained, are effective to suppress diseases. Fungicides, used to control harmful diseases, when combined with Harpin Protein (ProAct), strengthen and improve the plant’s immune system and efficacy through increased photosynthesis and its activated natural self-defence pathways, plants are able to maintain growth in the presence of diseases. Because plants are healthier, farmers are finding they can use generic fungicides, in combination with Harpin Protein (ProAct) and still achieve the same, if not better, results. This also helps farmers with Resistance Management by being able to alternate between fungicide classes, without losing efficacy, but still achieve an increase in yields.
Combination of Responses
The combination of responses leads to improved overall plant health that protects the plant against a wide range of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during crop growth. Only Harpin proteins can trigger thee harpin receptors on plants, which is either from bacterial pathogens themselves or from the commercial product Harpin Protein (ProAct). After an application the first reaction the plant makes, within minutes, is to flush calcium throughout the cells resulting in a fivefold increase in calcium levels.
The plant uses calcium as a signalling compound to notify the rest of the plant that it is under attack. The second reaction is increased photosynthesis to provide the plant with extra energy; an average of 20% increase is achieved. After an application of Harpin Protein (ProAct) various genes are switched on to stimulate the plant. The reaction the plant takes is unique. The extra cellular activity that it generates, powers an increase in nutrient uptake and mobilization, providing the plant with a stronger root development and immune system, which assists it to absorb extra water nutrients.
Defence Against Nematodes
After the application of Harpin Protein (ProAct), the plant builds up its own defence systems to fight off nematodes by reducing its feeding on the plant. The sooner one can build up a defence system against nematodes the healthier the plant’s root system will be. There is a new Harpin Protein seed treatment formulation used to defend the plant against nematodes for the first 2-4 weeks, before the first Harpin Protein (ProAct) foliar application can be applied at the 4 – 8 leaf stage.
Many plant- parasitic nematodes feed on the roots of the pants. He feeding process damages the plant’s root system and reduces its ability to absorb water and nutrients. The damage caused to the plant’s root system provides an opportunity for the other plant pathogens to invade the root and thus further weakens the plant.
Super Cell Formation
Not all nematodes kill the plant cells they feed upon but “rick” the plant cells to enlarge and grow, thus producing one or more nutrient-rich feeding cells. These feeding-cells, which enable long term feeding, are known as super cells and form large galls on the root system. Studies show that Harpin Protein (ProAct) strengthens the cell wall structure in plants, through the mobilisation of calcium and other elements, creating greater resistance by suppressing the formation of the super cells, making it difficult for nematodes to obtain nutrition from the roots. Harpin Protein (ProAct) reduces the size of these super cells making less nutrients available to feed on. By suppressing the nematode’s nutritional supply, the nematode population cannot multiply at the normal rate, giving the plant a better chance to grow a healthy root system.